Fuel Tank To Think Tank
Randy Lieber
Growing up, I learned early to go with the best I had until something else better came along. It has served me well and I suggest here that it would also serve our country today.
There are many polarized groups pushing different agendas on the alternative fuel debate, but herein I would recommend the proposition sited above; why not use the best fuel sources we have now until we develop something better? At this point hydrogen power, cold fusion and some other proposed fuel sources rank up there with Santa Claus for me. I want to believe, but before we stake all our hopes on these possibilities, shouldn’t we use the best options we have available now? In economics decision-making, this process is called satisficing. It explains the tendency to select the first option that satisfys some of the priority needs, or select the option that addresses most of the needs, rather than wait for the “optimal” solution that does everything.
Below are my findings from researching several sources, including: the University of Utah Chemistry Department, Los Alamos National Labs NM, the History Channel, the managements of the Utah, Idaho, Arizona and Nevada natural gas companies, my own extensive reading, and my ownership of CNG vehicles.
CNG is natural gas (methane) that has been compressed (compressed natural gas or CNG) and is stored in high-pressure cylinders.

ADVANTAGES OF CNG:
1) CNG is SAFER THAN GASOLINE
or diesel fuel according to the head University of Utah chemistry department. Natural gas and natural gas vehicles have a stellar safety record which is based upon two facts:
a. The physical properties of natural gas make it safer than most other fuels.
b. The fuel systems designed for natural gas vehicles are built to very stringent standards.
Physical Properties: Natural gas is flammable; otherwise it could not be used as a fuel for internal combustion and other types of energy. When released into the air or mixed with air in an engine, compressed natural gas becomes flammable only when the mixture is between 5 and 15 percent natural gas. When the mixture is less than 5 percent natural gas (too thin) it doesn't burn. When the mixture is more than 15 percent natural gas (too rich) there is not enough oxygen to allow it to burn. It also has an ignition temperature of approximately 1100 degrees F compared to gasoline and diesel fuel which both have lower concentrations of flammability and much lower temperatures of ignition.
We know that a fire or explosion needs three components: fuel, oxygen and ignition. A gasoline vehicle has two of these three components in its tank, fuel and oxygen. Whereas, a CNG vehicle has only one in its tank, fuel. CNG, unlike gasoline, dissipates into the atmosphere in the event of an accident. Gasoline on the other hand, pools in the immediate area creating a fire hazard. Hollywood scripts have propane tanks explode at the least provocation, which makes for great movie action, but is not true. A CNG tank has up to 3600 psi. Until the pressure is reduced enough to allow oxygen access, there cannot be combustion. At the point that the pressure is low enough to allow oxygen into the tank, the amount of fuel would be negligible. That is why the likelihood of a CNG explosion is fiction; but remember, that’s what you were watching - fiction.
Has anyone forgotten the Valdez? If that ship had split open with natural gas as its cargo, it would have simply dissipated into the atmosphere rather than pollute the ocean and the coastline of Alaska. Every day tanker trucks travel our roads delivering various types of petroleum products. More than half of that traffic could be eliminated with the use of CNG, reducing the pollution and the risk of life and property if those trucks are involved in an accident. Ever wonder why the stove or furnace in your home doesn't burn gasoline instead of natural gas?
Fuel System: Natural gas vehicles (NGV’s) have all the same standard safety equipment as conventional cars (seat belts, air bags, etc.), yet they are subjected to the same crash safety tests as well.
Because CNG fuel systems operate at pressures in excess of 3000 PSI, the fuel tank and associated plumbing have to be incredibly rugged and strong enough to contain that pressure. Newer tanks are constructed of polymers and composites that are stronger than steel. Contrast that with standard gasoline and diesel tanks in regular vehicles that are usually made from stamped steel shell halves, just a few sixteenths of an inch thick, that are welded or crimped together. In the event of a traffic accident, the ability of rugged, durable CNG tanks to withstand rupture or puncture far exceeds that of simple stamped steel.
But the safety of natural gas vehicles (NGV’s) doesn’t just stop with the construction of the fuel tank. Most CNG systems have a pressure release device (PRD). In a situation of excessive heat or pressure build-up, the PRD will open and release the gas to the atmosphere, and since it is lighter than the surrounding air, it will rise and dissipate. In the event of a fire, the fuel is safely evacuated from the car before it ever has a chance to catch fire. Gasoline and diesel vehicles simply can’t do that. Therefore, a CNG leak poses no direct threat to land or water and is safer.

2) CNG has a Distribution System Already in Place that is 1000 times more extensive than that used for petroleum products. Mega tanker ships transport oil from the Middle East. Tanker trucks transport 99% of the gasoline and diesel fuel that we consume at the pump. That itself contributes over 22% of price we pay at the pump, not to mention the danger. The transportation costs associated with CNG are almost fixed. Natural gas is distributed nationwide through an extensive network of pipelines, which feed electrical generation plants and domestic and industrial heating uses. Thus, the use of natural gas in vehicles is "piggybacking" on many years of infrastructure development.
If natural gas is available where you live, you can also install a natural gas pump to your home or business allowing you to refuel your vehicle in your garage. Many people already do this. No delivery needed; natural gas is already being delivered to our homes by underground pipelines. Equipment is $3500 - $4500 and installation is about $500. There is also a $1,500 state tax credit available to offset the cost of installation. The South Coast Air Quality Management District in the Los Angeles basin offers a $2,000 rebate on the purchase of a home CNG refueling device. Utah should to do likewise. So depending on how many miles you drive, this could be a great addition. (Google - "Fuel Maker")

3) CNG is a LOW COST FUEL or it should be. In Utah, as of 07/14/08, CNG is $.85 a gallon statewide; yes, that's .85 cents! In many other states CNG is as high as $3.75 a gallon. Utah, Oklahoma and a couple of other states regulate their natural gas. If Utah were not regulated, we also would be paying about $.50 a gallon less than gasoline, which has been where the petroleum companies and profiteers have pegged CNG’s price in many other states. In the past 20 years a few petroleum companies, like Clean Energy, have gone around the country and bought up many of the natural gas suppliers and distributors, in effect, destroying any competition.
The federal government currently allows a $.50 per gallon excise tax credit to all states dispensing CNG for vehicles. From the pricing differences, it’s easy to recognize which states are passing that money on to the consumer ( as is the case with Questar and Oklahoma Natural Gas ) and which distributors are gouging the consumer. Also note that under the 2005 congressional energy bill which provided these incentives, the .50 cent tax credit is offset by the same 18 cent tax excise tax which is paid at the pump for gasoline and diesel (until then CNG, LNG, LPG and other alternative fuels were not subject to paying this “road tax”). So the net effect is approximately .32 cents per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). This credit is also available to non-taxpaying entities such as local governments and school districts, etc. So we have the interesting situation where many of these entities that are using alternative fuels now are filing for the credit with the IRS, where previously they had no dealings with the IRS whatsoever.
Production, transportation, taxes and profit make up the main elements of petroleum’s price to the consumer. Unlike petroleum, CNG requires relatively little development, production, refinement or transportation. In fact, natural gas is often discovered with petroleum and burned off (flared) as a nuisance. It’s estimated that the world’s NG that is flared off in one year is equivalent to the energy used in the USA in 4 months.
Now, consider your ECON 101 class. Remember supply and demand effects? If we have a product with an over abundance (high), with a demand that at this point is almost nil (low), what would you expect the price to be?

4) REDUCE OUR DEPENDENCE on FOREIGN OIL NOW. Many politicians talk about reducing dependence but what are they doing about it TODAY? It’s a no-brainer! CNG is a domestic fuel. While in 2005, the U.S. imported over 75 percent of the oil it used, 99 percent of the natural gas used in the U.S. is produced in North America (85 percent from the U.S. and 14 percent from Canada). Every gallon equivalent of natural gas used in vehicles is one less gallon of petroleum that has to be imported. All diesel engines can be adapted to a dual fuel system. Diesel engines will run easily on a mixture as low as 20% diesel and 80% CNG according to a Questar executive.

5) LOWER MAINTENANCE Not only is CNG cheaper but also when used in vehicles, the engines last 2 to 3 times longer and the oil only needs to be changed every 10,000 miles, unlike gasoline engines that require oil be changed every 3,000 miles. Mechanics with Questar (Utah’s natural gas distributor) say that vehicles that use CNG still look new, at 200,000 miles. There are CNG taxis and limos that have logged over 1 million miles. They don’t experience the build up of hydrocarbons that petroleum vehicles do. That’s because carbon is like sand in an engine increasing wear and shortening its life. Dedicated CNG vehicles are designed to run only on natural gas but there are also bi-fuel vehicles. They make the best of both worlds and have two separate fueling systems.

6) CNG is a PLENTIFUL & RENEWABLE RESOURCE Natural gas is made up of 5 gases; mainly methane, with small quantities of propane, butane, ethane and pentane.s It is found in oil fields or isolated in natural gas fields, and in coal beds.s It is composed of over 92% methane that is created from the anaerobic decomposition of organic material and also occurs naturally deep in the earth and throughout the solar system.q The Salt Lake County landfill on 6400 West powers its buildings, heating, cooling and electricity from the methane that is piped off the landfill. Thus while petroleum is being produced at a snails pace at optimal conditions of pressure and temperature within the earth, methane is produced comparatively quickly and easily. The planet’s current reservoirs of known natural gas are enough to supply the earth’s energy needs for the next 250 years. Canada itself has enough to supply the planets energy needs for the next 50 years according to a Vice President with Nevada gas. The world’s largest discovery of NG was made in early 2008 at Rawlins Wyoming. The North Atlantic Ocean, Israel, Australia and Russia also have vast supplies of untapped natural gas making it a secure energy source. The US Energy Information Administration projects up to 240 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of natural gas could be produced a year from 4 of the 19 major shale formations is the USA. In 2007, the total U.S.natural gas consumption was 23,057,969 (Mcf). (see 9 &10)

7) PERFORMANCE in regards to CNG is not a problem. CNG is approximately 130 octane. Racing fuels are about approximately 110 octane. The octane in regular gasoline that most of our vehicles run on is 85. In fact, the world land speed record was set by “Blue Flame”, a natural gas vehicle on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah on October 28, 1970. The Blue Flame's record of 630.478 mph, lasted for 13 years.
Gasoline is liquid that is sprayed or injected into a vehicle’s cylinders in a semi-gaseous state. CNG is already gas, thus providing a more complete and cleaner burn. This has to do with the molecular structure of methane, CH4. It has the highest ratio of carbon to hydrogen atoms of any other compound on earth, thus more complete efficient combustion as compared to petroleum,(C8H18). E(85) Ethanol, on the other hand, has very poor performance and requires MORE energy to produce it than it provides. If that isn’t bad enough, they use natural gas to heat the corn to produce ethanol. Add that to the fact that by using our corn reserves (a third of the U.S. annual corn crop) to produce fuel we lose our bargaining chip with other countries to feed their population. As noted in Time magazine 4/1/08, ethanol is partially responsible for the deforestation of the rainforest as well. The article reports that the corn that is used to distill one tank of ethanol would feed one human for a year. Also less corn available means higher feed prices, thus higher meat, dairy and everything else. In pandering to the farm lobby the federal government and Detroit abandoned CNG as an alternative fuel in favor of E(85) and now we are feeling the pinch at the grocery store and in the lack of new CNG vehicles to choose from. Would you rather import fuel or food? We don’t have to import either if we could get special interests out of our elected officials pockets and heads.
The price of regular gasoline is approximately $4.00 a gallon. The price for CNG is $.85 a gallon in Utah. So the ratio is approximately 5 to 1. So, in terms of the money paid, gasoline costs 5 times more than natural gas, which means that a Ford Crown Victoria that averages 25 mpg gets the financial equivalent of 5 x 25 or 125 mpg on average or in other words, it’s like paying the normal price for gasoline, but getting 125 miles per gallon. Now, that’s my kind of GREEN$$

8) CLEAN AIR: Natural gas vehicles show an average reduction in ozone-forming emissions of 80% compared to gasoline or diesel vehicles. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, and less air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. Natural gas is not made from petroleum, as gasoline and diesel are. It has a simple, one carbon, molecular structure (CH4) that makes possible its nearly complete combustion. In general, carbon dioxide is exhaled by animals and utilized by plants during photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas because it absorbs in the infrared range, and because of its atmospheric lifetime.
Replacing one diesel-powered garbage truck with a natural gas-powered one is equal to taking 325 cars off the road in terms of pollution reduction.
According to the EPA, typical dedicated NGV’s can reduce exhaust emissions of:
Carbon monoxide (CO) by 70 percent
Non-methane organic gas (NMOG) by 87 percent
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 87 percent
Formaldehyde (H2CO) by 82 percent
Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) by 91 percent
1.3-Butadiene (C4H6) TEX Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes can have major affects on the central nervous system, reduced by 88 percent
Particle Mass by 98 percent
Carbon dioxide (CO2) by almost 20 percent below those of gasoline vehicles.
Note: Even hybrid's (gasoline-electric) emissions are subject to increased emissions until their catalytic converters reach operational temperatures. Most importantly, the results above are maintained even under cold-start, lower ambient temperature conditions like those experienced in the winter along Utah’s Wasatch Front. Sulphur dioxide emissions that also lead to formation of deadly sulphate particles are virtually eliminated.
Next to electric, CNG is the next least polluting fuel, only if you’re talking about what comes out of the tailpipe. When you take into consideration the disposal of batteries every 4 years electric cars, you are now talking about a pollutant that rivals nuclear waste, according to a physicist at Los Alamos National Labs NM. Plus 49.2% of our nation’s electrical power comes from coal (the highest manmade particulate contaminate, also the number one source of radioactive contaminates in the atmosphere), 20.4% from natural gas, 19.4% from nuclear, 7% from hydro-energy, 1.6% from petroleum and 2.4% from renewable wind, solar, and geothermal. With that, the energy that is recharging the “clean” electric car, over 50% of the time is not so clean. Until technology comes up with a battery that does not need to be disposed of and can store energy more efficiently, electric vehicles are counter productive to most environmental concerns.
Particulates are responsible for maximum health damage and have no safe levels according to international studies. Those studies confirm that breathable particles kill even at low concentrations.
The CNG Honda Civic GX on the other hand has been the cleanest internal-combustion-engine vehicle ever tested by the EPA in every year since 1998.

9) Use it Before it Becomes a Threat? According to the History Channel, one of the Mega Disasters that hangs over our planet is global warming’s effect on methane deposits on the sea floor close to the arctic polar ice cap and its effect on permafrost. Those pockets bubble to the surface as our oceans warm and could provide a flammable methane-rich atmosphere in the future. Scientists have proposed drilling into that deposit to tap into the fuels there, but they are meeting opposition from environmentalists. The History Channel cites known methane deposits on planet earth to be about 20,000 million tons. That’s two to three times that of the known reserves of petroleum and more being produced every minute by nature. Why not reduce the threat? USE IT!

10) A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP is one where both parties benefit. As stated above, natural gas contains a minimum of 90% methane. Every animal on earth produces methane. We currently collect the material that could be used to produce methane. It’s called sewage, fecal matter, and waste products. Over 60% of American homes are connected to a sewer collection system. Over 50% of American homes are connected to a natural gas supply system for heating. A symbiotic system would be to use our sewage collection plants in our larger metropolitan areas to produce natural gas. That methane could then be piped to our already existing natural gas providers. They in turn would pipe it to our homes and businesses for heating and power. The homes in turn would return sewage to the production plants.

11) UTAH IS ON THE CUTTING EDGE according to the Salt Lake Tribune, for CNG implementation. (July 16, 2007) However, Utah screwed up! Ten years ago Utah led the nation by providing bi-fuel vehicles for state employees who were supplied bi-fuel vehicles (run on either gasoline or CNG). It failed. Why? If you were given a credit card to pay for all of your fuel and had the choice of getting your gasoline on almost every street corner or have to look around for a CNG station, which would you choose? The State should have supplied dedicated CNG vehicles to all employees for city driving, and then made bi-fuel or traditional gasoline vehicles to check out for travel to areas where CNG is not available.
This addresses one of the hurdles to CNG acceptance. That is, the consumer’s demand for access to fuel. Not because we need it, necessarily, but because we are used to it. Those of us born after 1930 have grown up spoiled and brainwashed by having a filling station on almost every corner. In town we don’t give a thought to where our next fill-up will come from, only its price. The only time we consider access is when we drive our gasoline vehicles to remote locations off the main road. We typically don’t consider how much fuel we have or might need? For a savings of $1.00 to $2.50 a gallon, I for one, am willing to plan ahead and consider CNG fuel locations before I travel. The average family that drives 2,000 miles a month will save about $2,500 a year. With that kind of savings, a family could afford to fly or rent a gasoline vehicle and not put the miles on their own.

12) CNG BONUS:
DRIVE ALONE IN THE CARPOOL LANE. A CNG vehicle also qualifies for a Utah Clean Air License Plate that lets you drive solo in the carpool lane and ignore fees at the parking meters in downtown Salt Lake City. Saving hours each week. Many Californians drive CNG vehicles for this benefit only.
FEDERAL & STATE TAX CREDITS Utah and the federal government are encouraging the use of Alternate Fuel Vehicles through various tax incentives. The Federal tax credit is on newly produced or newly converted dedicated vehicles and provides between $4,000 and $32,000 depending on GVW. Cars and trucks under 8500 GVW get $4,000 and it goes up from there. Most pickups 8600 GVW or higher get $8,000. Only the first person to register a used CNG vehicle in Utah is eligible for a state tax credit that can be as high as $3000. The amount of the credit is based on how much the CNG option costs on the conversion costs when made. That may sound unfair but go back and read all the advantages above again. (Talk to Utah Division of Air Quality for details)

13) CNG is the short-term fix and is part of the long-term cure to our transportation fuel appetite. Over the long term, fuel cell vehicles operating on hydrogen promise to deliver zero emissions. Tremendous synergy and continuity exists between the deployment of today’s NGVs and tomorrow’s hydrogen-fueled vehicles:
· Natural gas is the leading source for hydrogen in the U.S. today.
· The first fueling stations along California’s highways will likely produce hydrogen onsite by reforming pipeline natural gas.
· Some of these will be “energy stations” that break hydrogen from natural gas to power fuel cell vehicles, generate electricity for buildings, and produce usable hot water (“tri-generation energy”).
· Technologies and products developed for NGVs and natural gas stations over many years are now “jumpstarting” fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen stations.
· Many “lessons learned” for NGVs and natural gas directly apply to fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen.
· Most investments already made in NGVs and natural gas fueling stations (capital, institutional, educational, organizational, etc.) are directly or indirectly applicable to America’s emerging hydrogen fueling system.
The infrastructure being built today for CNG will be tomorrow’s hydrogen transportation network. America’s long-range plans to improve air quality and energy independence call for a gradual transition towards zero-emission modes of transportation and away from petroleum-based fuels. The “ultimate” fuel and technology combination for meeting these objectives will be FCVs (Fuel Cell Vehicles) using hydrogen that has been produced locally from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind and geothermal power, or even landfill biomethane.
Fuel cells and associated technologies are steadily advancing, but many challenges remain. Perhaps the most formidable of these are associated with the costs and use logistics of hydrogen itself. Although hydrogen is nature’s most abundant element, on Earth it largely exists in forms that are chemically bound into water molecules or hydrocarbon compounds such as methane. A major challenge to commercializing FCVs involves developing a process that can economically “free” hydrogen into its pure elemental form (H2) at minimal impact to the environment.
Fortunately, natural gas provides widely available resource with a proven technique for separating out hydrogen molecules. Specifically, most hydrogen in the United States today, and about half of the worldwide supply, is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. In part, this is because methane (the main component of natural gas) has the highest hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of any hydrocarbon fuel – CH4. During the initial “launch” of hydrogen-fueled vehicles (both FCVs and internal combustion engine vehicles, or ICEVs), it is highly likely that demand for hydrogen fuel in the transportation sector will be met through this type of traditional steam reforming of natural gas.

What are the benefits of using natural gas in transportation?
Natural gas available and is produced worldwide at a relatively low cost. It is cleaner burning than gasoline and especially diesel fuel. Could we switch today – no. Could we start doing something about it today – YES! All diesel machines could be adapted to a dual fuel system. The engine will run easily on a mixture of 20% diesel and 80% CNG.
There is something wrong with the current fuel situation and what we are being told about it. After driving a CNG vehicle for a year, reading everything I can get my hands on about alternative fuels and speaking to the Chemistry department at the U of U, I can say that it is logical that every family’s second car should be CNG and that every state should encourage CNG use over petroleum.
Moving to CNG will not only help us to reach emission results comparable to Euro IV norms, but it will also immediately reduce the cancer risk from diesel emissions significantly. Since CNG is a cleaner fuel, it is possible to meet much tighter standards within a short time frame and make a quantum leap towards what environmentalists crave, still satisfy the consumer’s desire for value and yet provides these at the lowest economic impact as we face our future transportation energy demands.

We need it NOW! We have a choice; it just isn’t being offered. [B]ASK WHY!
Disadvantages of CNG:[/B]1 The country needs time to put in pump stations as the demand increases. States other than Utah are way behind the curve.
2) Other states are a much larger problem. i.e. All of Idaho’s CNG stations are private or government only.
3) The space necessary for the storage of a CNG tank in a vehicle makes it impractical for very small vehicles. That’s why trains, buses, and local freight semis would be an easy conversion
4) Perception: Most people know nothing about CNG yet will express an uninformed opinion.
5) Perception: See #1 People believe that CNG is more dangerous. See #2 People think they need more access to fuel then they really need.
6) CNG requires major retooling of both cars and fuel-station infrastructure.
7) If your car spends more than 80% of its time in a metropolitan area with CNG pumps available, no problem. If the vehicle is to be used out of state then you need to do further study on the availability in the areas that you intend to travel. For the 10% that it is used outside the city, you would need to figure the vehicles range and alow enought fuel to return to a CNG station. There are bi-fuel vehicles that can operate on both CNG and gasoline. There too, with what you save with CNG, you could rent a vehicle to go out of state or fly.
8) The myths that surround natural gas such as it is too expensive to use as a generating fuel.
Recommendations and Solutions:
A - The federal government and states mandate that all public transportation, i.e. buses, trains, taxis, local delivery vehicles and government fleets, be run on 80% alternative fuel by 2010.
B – All commercial diesels to augment CNG to 40% by 2011
C - Base public service commissions to regulate all petroleum and natural gas companies by a by 2010.
D – Re-instate the 1992 Clean Air Act WITH teeth. Penalties for non-compliance by 2009.
E – Mandate that all US auto Manufacturers offer a dedicated CNG vehicle by 2011
F – Nationally - All CNG stations to be public accessible by 2009. (where safe and practical)
G - The EPA is a bureaucratic mess. In short, they have made it too expensive to get the approval that currently sets qualifications for the federal tax credit! It has made it so expensive to test and get anything approved. It costs US auto manufacturers $300-$400 thousand to get one system approved. Newt Gingrich said “What we have done is build a very slow, cumbersome process of paying for research. If you’re not already a senior scientist, if you don’t already have a track record, if your idea is too wild, the system ignores you.” What to do? Recognize, says Gingrich, that incentives work, and, as 90% of the respondents said in an ASWF poll, that entrepreneurs are more likely to solve our energy and environmental problems than an approach that is merely regulatory. Option 3 is needed NOW!
H – Call and support Questar, the Utah Division of Air Quality and our state officials, they are the ones that are putting UTAH on the cutting edge and making a difference.
I - The petroleum industry has a vested interest in thwarting any efforts to make CNG available and competitive. Hold them accountable. The FTC should do something about the monopoly, but won’t until “we the people” get educated.
J – An alternative method for on-site storage of natural gas is to store it in the form of LNG (liquid natural gas).
High-pressure cryogenic pumps can be used to compress the LNG to 4,000-4,500 psi and then vaporizing the highly compressed liquid. This method offers several advantages over conventional CNG: a) Cryogenic pumps require significantly less energy than the compressors used at the conventional CNG stations and are less maintenance-intensive. b) Since LNG is essentially pure methane-CH4, LNG or CNG is delivered to vehicles with virtually no contaminants such as oil carryover, moisture and higher hydrocarbons. According to the US-based Gas Research Institute, the capital costs of a large LNG or CNG station can be nearly 50 per cent lower than a conventional CNG station.
K - Allow the immediate production of any CNG vehicle that was being produced from 2000 to 2005.
L - Many other countries are far ahead of the U.S. in their use of NGV’s. Italy, China, India, and Pakistan are just a few. Brazil has over one million NGV’s. In Argentina, 20% of all vehicles use natural gas. Put natural gas for transportation on the national agenda NOW!
M - Methane is indeed a greenhouse gas, though carbon dioxide is responsible for about half of the enhancement of the global greenhouse effect. But in view of the USA’s air quality profile, the benefits of moving to CNG outweigh the potential ills. Therefore, the priority in US should be to move out of fuels that emit greater particles such as diesel as fast as possible.
N – Questar: More and larger CNG stations. Update and provide regular service to existing stations through state funding.
O - Encourage alternative energy that is here, working, available, affordable and practical now.
P – Questar and Utah government: We need access to government and/or Questar locations particularly in areas where CNG is not publicly available. i.e. Moab, Tooele, Heber, Vernal, Kanab, Delta, Bluffdale, etc.
Q – Questar: Upgrade out-of-date natural gas main lines to 400cfm.
R – Questar should return to doing CNG conversions on its own vehicles. Why is a natural gas company using gasoline anyhow?
CNG is the best-kept secret. WHY?
?Some economists feel that American petroleum companies are buying the foreign oil now at comparatively low prices so in the future when foreign oil is exhausted they can step in with American oil at exorbitant prices.
?Some feel the petroleum companies are buying off the future of CNG.
My first title for this paper was “A Conspiracy of Stupidity”; Some recommended that people ruffle at the word “conspiracy”, so I changed it. It should have been “Conspiracy OR Stupidity”
To do something will cost. To do nothing will cost much more in the long term.

For more information about natural gas and CNG, visit:
a – http://www.usatoday.com/tech/product...ollution_N.htm
b - http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/.../afvs/cng.html
c - http://engva.org/Pages/63/documents/...indsor2004.pdf
d - http://pubs.its.ucdavis.edu/publicat...ail.php?id=368
e - http://www.tennesseecleanfuels.org/Natural_Gas.html
f - http://www.cseindia.org/campaign/apc...ndex_final.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressed_natural_gas
g - http://www.heraldextra.com/content/view/239381/
h - http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/transportation/CNG.html
i - http://www.mckenziecorp.com/dehydration.htm
j - http://www.altfuels.org/backgrnd/altftype/cng.html
k - http://deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,695204002,00.html
l - http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,5143,695204005,00.html
m - http://www.envocare.co.uk/lpg_lng_cng.htm
n - http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/bifueltech.shtml
o - http://autos.yahoo.com/green_center-article_114/
p - http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electri...pa/figes1.html
q - http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2...thaneblast.htm Rockets
r - http://ngvamerica.com/
s - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas
t - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Flame_(car)
u - http://engva.org/Content.aspx?PageID=63
v – http://engva.org/Pages/63/documents/...2.02-12.03.pdf
w - http://www.********.com/********.Com..._or_Truck.html
x - http://solveclimate.com/blog/2008031...ull-need-water
y - http://www.lanl.gov/news/index.php/f...story_id/12554
z. - http://www.time.com/time/magazine/ar...725975,00.html
aa - http://www.jaylenosgarage.com/video/...tml?vid=193319
bb - http://cleanskies.org/
cc - http://www.********.com/safety.html
dd - http://www.cngprices.com/

When was the last time that you heard of your government doing something reasonable, rational and logical? Politics was never intended to be a profession!
Follow the Money!
7/14/08
Refer on line to: http://utahcleancities.org/ for a online copy of the above.